A biomaterials viewpoint for the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development
Isak Jatoi, Jingyu Fan*()


Figure 5.. Adjuvants improve immunogenicity via different mechanisms. 1. Alum and emulsion such as MF59 generate depots to trap and recruit antigen presenting cells (APCs). 2. By utilizing TLR/NOD agonists, pattern recognition receptors (PRR) were covalently bound to their ligands, followed by the activation of downstream pathways. 3. Aside from APC recruitment, Alum could also induce NLRP3 inflammasome. 4. Depot generation and induction of MHC responses could be obtained by application of MF59 and Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (IFA). The image is licensed and authorized by InvivoGen.