Preclinical evaluation of acute systemic toxicity of magnesium incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) porous scaffolds by three-dimensional printing
Jing Long1, Bin Teng2, Wei Zhang1, Long Li1,3, Ming Zhang3, Yingqi Chen3, Zhenyu Yao1, Xiangbo Meng1, Xinluan Wang1, Ling Qin1,4, Yuxiao Lai1,2,5,*()


Figure 3.. In vivo acute toxicity results in mice after intraperitoneal injection of different extract solutions. Each extract solution was prepared by soaking the PT15M scaffold in the solution at 37°C for 72 hours. (A) The percentage of live and dead animals. For those mice that survived or dead, corresponding to the extract medium they were injected, we grouped them into four groups which were control/MEM/alive (Control), PT15M/saline/dead, PT15M/PBS/dead, and PT15M/MEM/dead groups. (B) Mg and Ca ion concentrations of serum in mice, 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection of extract solution. (C) H&E staining of heart, and Mg indicator fluorescent staining (green) of heart, liver, and lung. Black arrows indicate loosened cardiac tissues, and white arrows indicate enrichment sites of Mg ions in tissues. Scale bars: 200 μm. (D) The mass ratios of Mg and Ca in different organs. The control group was injected with MEM that was not incubated with any scaffolds. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD (n = 10, 5 male and 5 female). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test). “A” stands for alive mice, and “D” means dead mice. Ca: calcium; H&E: haematoxylin and eosin; MEM: serum-free minimum essential medium; Mg: magnesium; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PT15M: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/beta-tricalcium phosphate/15 wt% Mg porous composite scaffolds; Saline: normal saline.