Preclinical evaluation of acute systemic toxicity of magnesium incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) porous scaffolds by three-dimensional printing
Jing Long1, Bin Teng2, Wei Zhang1, Long Li1,3, Ming Zhang3, Yingqi Chen3, Zhenyu Yao1, Xiangbo Meng1, Xinluan Wang1, Ling Qin1,4, Yuxiao Lai1,2,5,*()


Figure 5.. In vivo acute toxicity results in mice after intraperitoneal injection of extract MEM with different pH values (7.0 and 10.0). Extract MEM was prepared by soaking PT15M at 37°C for 72 hours. For those mice that survived or dead, corresponding to the different pH values of scaffold extract they were injected, we grouped them into four groups which were MEM/pH7/alive (MEM/pH7/A), MEM/pH10/alive (MEM/pH10/A), PT15M/pH7/alive (PT15M/pH7/A), and PT15M/pH7/dead (PT15M/pH7/D) groups. (A) The percentage of live and dead animals at 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection of extract MEM. (B) The weight change of live mice at 72 hours after intraperitoneal injection of extract MEM. (C) Mg and Ca ion concentrations of serum in mice 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection of extract MEM. (D) H&E staining of heart, and Mg indicator fluorescent staining of heart, liver, and lung. Black arrows indicate loosened cardiac tissues, and white arrows indicate enrichment sites of Mg ions in tissues. Scale bars: 200 μm. (E) The mass ratios of Mg and Ca in different organs at 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection with extract MEM. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD (n = 10, 5 male and 5 female). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test). “A” stands for alive mice, and “D” means dead mice. Ca: calcium; H&E: haematoxylin and eosin; MEM: serum-free minimum essential medium; Mg: magnesium; PT15M: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/beta-tricalcium phosphate/15 wt% Mg porous composite scaffolds.