This review reviews highlights the outstanding performance of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as excellent biosynthetic materials, focusing on the role of PHAs and their composites in the musculoskeletal system in recent years. They not only contribute to the recovery and reconstruction of bone, joint, cartilage, blood vessel, etc., but also serve as drug carriers to assist in the recovery of related tissues. At the same time, the unique role of PHA degradation products is also elaborated.
Infection and rejection in musculoskeletal trauma often pose challenges for natural healing, prompting the exploration of biomimetic organ and tissue transplantation as a common alternative solution. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a large family of biopolyesters synthesised in microorganism, demonstrating excellent biocompatibility and controllable biodegradability for tissue remodelling and drug delivery. With different monomer-combination and polymer-types, multi-mechanical properties of PHAs making them have great application prospects in medical devices with stretching, compression, twist in long time, especially in musculoskeletal tissue engineering. This review systematically summarises the applications of PHAs in multiple tissues repair and drug release, encompassing areas such as bone, cartilage, joint, skin, tendons, ligament, cardiovascular tissue, and nervous tissue. It also discusses challenges encountered in their application, including high production costs, potential cytotoxicity, and uncontrollable particle size distribution. In conclusion, PHAs offer a compelling avenue for musculoskeletal system applications, striking a balance between biocompatibility and mechanical performance. However, addressing challenges in their production and application requires further research to unleash their full potential in tackling the complexities of musculoskeletal regeneration.