Biomaterials Translational ›› 2023, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (4): 199-212.doi: 10.12336/biomatertransl.2023.04.002

• REVIEW • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Organoid extracellular vesicle-based therapeutic strategies for bone therapy

Han Liu1,2,3,4, Jiacan Su1,2,3,4,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Translational Medicine, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
    2 Organoid Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
    3 National Center for Translational Medicine (Shanghai) SHU Branch, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
    4 Department of Orthopedics, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
  • Received:2023-09-30 Revised:2023-11-24 Accepted:2023-12-05 Online:2023-12-27 Published:2023-12-28
  • Contact: Jiacan Su, drsujiacan@163.com.


With the rapid development of population ageing, bone-related diseases seriously affecting the life of the elderly. Over the past few years, organoids, cell clusters with specific functions and structures that are self-induced from stem cells after three-dimensional culture in vitro, have been widely used for bone therapy. Moreover, organoid extracellular vesicles (OEVs) have emerging as promising cell-free nanocarriers due to their vigoroso physiological effects, significant biological functions, stable loading capacity, and great biocompatibility. In this review, we first provide a comprehensive overview of biogenesis, internalisation, isolation, and characterisation of OEVs. We then comprehensively highlight the differences between OEVs and traditional EVs. Subsequently, we present the applications of natural OEVs in disease treatment. We also summarise the engineering modifications of OEVs, including engineering parental cells and engineering OEVs after isolation. Moreover, we provide an outlook on the potential of natural and engineered OEVs in bone-related diseases. Finally, we critically discuss the advantages and challenges of OEVs in the treatment of bone diseases. We believe that a comprehensive discussion of OEVs will provide more innovative and efficient solutions for complex bone diseases.

Key words: bone therapy, engineering modifications, extracellular vesicles, nanotechnology, organoid extracellular vesicles