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    REVIEW
    Zhao-Lin Zeng, Hui Xie
    2022, 3(online first):  0-0. 
    Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) have great prospects for application in orthopaedic diseases by transporting substances such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The use of modified MSC-EVs combined with materials science can realise cell-free treatment of bone diseases.
    Abstract ( 24 )   PDF (2718KB) ( 31 )  
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    Accumulating evidence suggests that the therapeutic role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone diseases is closely related to paracrine-generated extracellular vesicles (EVs). MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) carry proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids to the extracellular space and affect the bone microenvironment. They have similar biological functions to MSCs, such as the ability to repair organ and tissue damage. In addition, MSC-EVs also have the advantages of long half-life, low immunogenicity, attractive stability, ability to pass through the blood-brain barrier, and demonstrate excellent performance with potential practical applications in bone diseases. In this review, we summarise the current applications and mechanisms of MSC-EVs in osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, bone tumours, osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and fractures, as well as the development of MSC-EVs combined with materials science in the field of orthopaedics. Additionally, we explore the critical challenges involved in the clinical application of MSC-EVs in orthopaedic diseases.