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2023 Issue 2 (Available Online: 2023-06-28)

    EDITORIAL
    Carrying passion in a numerical world
    Qian Wang
    2023, 4(2):  63-64.  doi:10.12336/biomatertransl.2023.02.001
    Abstract ( 115 )   HTML ( 19)   PDF (98KB) ( 38 )  
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    VIEWPOINT
    Wearable bioelectronic system for wound healing and management
    Xuanzuo Chen, Yizhong Peng
    2023, 4(2):  65-66.  doi:10.12336/biomatertransl.2023.02.002
    Abstract ( 105 )   HTML ( 27)   PDF (186KB) ( 73 )  
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    REVIEW
    Monchupa Kingsak, Thongpon Meethong, Jinnawat Jongkhumkrong, Li Cai, Qian Wang
    2023, 4(2):  67-84.  doi:10.12336/biomatertransl.2023.02.003
    Abstract ( 190 )   HTML ( 35)   PDF (1311KB) ( 224 )  
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    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy has been shown to be an effective targeted cancer therapy treatment in recent years, providing an avenue of treatment that poses no damage to surrounding healthy tissues. Not only do OVs cause direct oncolysis, but they also amplify both innate and adaptive immune responses generating long-term anti-tumour immunity. Genetically engineered OVs have become the common promising strategy to enhance anti-tumour immunity, safety, and efficacy as well as targeted delivery. The studies of various OVs have been accomplished through phase I-III clinical trial studies. In addition, the uses of carrier platforms of organic materials such as polymer chains, liposomes, hydrogels, and cell carriers have played a vital role in the potentially targeted delivery of OVs. The mechanism, rational design, recent clinical trials, applications, and the development of targeted delivery platforms of OVs will be discussed in this review.

    Ahlam A. Abdalla, Catherine J. Pendegrass
    2023, 4(2):  85-103.  doi:10.12336/biomatertransl.2023.02.004
    Abstract ( 316 )   HTML ( 34)   PDF (834KB) ( 386 )  
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    Entheses are highly specialised organs connecting ligaments and tendons to bones, facilitating force transmission, and providing mechanical strengths to absorb forces encountered. Two types of entheses, fibrocartilaginous and fibrous, exist in interfaces. The gradual fibrocartilaginous type is in rotator cuff tendons and is more frequently injured due to the poor healing capacity that leads to loss of the original structural and biomechanical properties and is attributed to the high prevalence of retears. Fluctuating methodologies and outcomes of biological approaches are challenges to overcome for them to be routinely used in clinics. Therefore, stratifying the existing literature according to different categories (chronicity, extent of tear, and studied population) would effectively guide repair approaches. This literature review supports tissue engineering approaches to promote rotator cuff enthesis healing employing cells, growth factors, and scaffolds period. Outcomes suggest its promising role in animal studies as well as some clinical trials and that combination therapies are more beneficial than individualized ones. It then highlights the importance of tailoring interventions according to the tear extent, chronicity, and the population being treated. Contributing factors such as loading, deficiencies, and lifestyle habits should also be taken into consideration. Optimum results can be achieved if biological, mechanical, and environmental factors are approached. It is challenging to determine whether variations are due to the interventions themselves, the animal models, loading regimen, materials, or tear mechanisms. Future research should focus on tailoring interventions for different categories to formulate protocols, which would best guide regenerative medicine decision making.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Ross H. McWilliam, Wenlong Chang, Zhao Liu, Jiayuan Wang, Fengxuan Han, Richard A. Black, Junxi Wu, Xichun Luo, Bin Li, Wenmiao Shu
    2023, 4(2):  104-114.  doi:10.12336/biomatertransl.2023.02.005
    Abstract ( 151 )   HTML ( 28)   PDF (2009KB) ( 106 )  
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    There is a high demand for bespoke grafts to replace damaged or malformed bone and cartilage tissue. Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers a method of fabricating complex anatomical features of clinically relevant sizes. However, the construction of a scaffold to replicate the complex hierarchical structure of natural tissues remains challenging. This paper reports a novel biofabrication method that is capable of creating intricately designed structures of anatomically relevant dimensions. The beneficial properties of the electrospun fibre meshes can finally be realised in 3D rather than the current promising breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D). The 3D model was created from commercially available computer-aided design software packages in order to slice the model down into many layers of slices, which were arrayed. These 2D slices with each layer of a defined pattern were laser cut, and then successfully assembled with varying thicknesses of 100 µm or 200 µm. It is demonstrated in this study that this new biofabrication technique can be used to reproduce very complex computer-aided design models into hierarchical constructs with micro and nano resolutions, where the clinically relevant sizes ranging from a simple cube of 20 mm dimension, to a more complex, 50 mm-tall human ears were created. In-vitro cell-contact studies were also carried out to investigate the biocompatibility of this hierarchal structure. The cell viability on a micromachined electrospun polylactic-co-glycolic acid fibre mesh slice, where a range of hole diameters from 200 µm to 500 µm were laser cut in an array where cell confluence values of at least 85% were found at three weeks. Cells were also seeded onto a simpler stacked construct, albeit made with micromachined poly fibre mesh, where cells can be found to migrate through the stack better with collagen as bioadhesives. This new method for biofabricating hierarchical constructs can be further developed for tissue repair applications such as maxillofacial bone injury or nose/ear cartilage replacement in the future.

    Hanyu Chu, Kexin Zhang, Zilong Rao, Panpan Song, Zudong Lin, Jing Zhou, Liqun Yang, Daping Quan, Ying Bai
    2023, 4(2):  115-127.  doi:10.12336/biomatertransl.2023.02.006
    Abstract ( 154 )   HTML ( 36)   PDF (2885KB) ( 199 )  
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    The printability of bioink and post-printing cell viability is crucial for extrusion-based bioprinting. A proper bioink not only provides mechanical support for structural fidelity, but also serves as suitable three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment for cell encapsulation and protection. In this study, a hydrogel-based composite bioink was developed consisting of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) as the continuous phase and decellularised extracellular matrix microgels (DMs) as the discrete phase. A flow-focusing microfluidic system was employed for the fabrication of cell-laden DMs in a high-throughput manner. After gentle mixing of the DMs and GelMA, both rheological characterisations and 3D printing tests showed that the resulting DM-GelMA hydrogel preserved the shear-thinning nature, mechanical properties, and good printability from GelMA. The integration of DMs not only provided an extracellular matrix-like microenvironment for cell encapsulation, but also considerable shear-resistance for high post-printing cell viability. The DM sizes and inner diameters of the 3D printer needles were correlated and optimised for nozzle-based extrusion. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept bioink composedg of RSC96 Schwann cells encapsulated DMs and human umbilical vein endothelial cell-laden GelMA was successfully bioprinted into 3D constructs, resulting in a modular co-culture system with distinct cells/materials distribution. Overall, the modular DM-GelMA bioink provides a springboard for future precision biofabrication and will serve in numerous biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug screening.