During the development of artificial blood vessels, various materials and manufacturing methods have been continuously explored, and modifications can be made to improve the causes of failure. Through in vitro and in vivo evaluation, we will eventually select the ideal artificial blood vessel.
Cardiovascular disease serves as the leading cause of death worldwide, with stenosis, occlusion, or severe dysfunction of blood vessels being its pathophysiological mechanism. Vascular replacement is the preferred surgical option for treating obstructed vascular structures. Due to the limited availability of healthy autologous vessels as well as the incidence of postoperative complications, there is an increasing demand for artificial blood vessels. From synthetic to natural, or a mixture of these components, numerous materials have been used to prepare artificial vascular grafts. Although synthetic grafts are more appropriate for use in medium to large-diameter vessels, they fail when replacing small-diameter vessels. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts are very likely to be an ideal alternative to autologous grafts in small-diameter vessels and are worthy of further investigation. However, a multitude of problems remain that must be resolved before they can be used in biomedical applications. Accordingly, this review attempts to describe these problems and provide a discussion of the generation of artificial blood vessels. In addition, we deliberate on current state-of-the-art technologies for creating artificial blood vessels, including advances in materials, fabrication techniques, various methods of surface modification, as well as preclinical and clinical applications. Furthermore, the evaluation of grafts both in vivo and in vitro, mechanical properties, challenges, and directions for further research are also discussed.